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Pollution Still Killing Thousands, 60 Years Since Clean Air Act

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Activists gather to demand clean air as Edinburgh Air Pollution Zone to be expanded by Friends of the Earth Scotland via Flickr

The Clean Air Act, introduced 60 years ago, still does not prevent the death of thousands of people in Scotland.

In a decisive and successful response to the Great Smog of 1952 that killed 12,000 people, the Clean Air Act of 1956 introduced controls on industrial pollution and the burning of coal. However, since the 1950s traffic levels have sky-rocketed and air pollution now claims over 2,500 lives in Scotland annually.

Friends of the Earth Scotland’s Air Pollution Campaigner, Emilia Hanna, said:

“On the 60th anniversary of the Clean Air Act, we urge the Scottish Parliament to draw inspiration from that law and to take decisive action against modern air pollution, responsible for over 2,500 premature deaths every year in Scotland.

Air pollution has changed since the 1950s, but it remains devastating to public health.

Back then, pea soupers were caused by coal smoke from heavy industry, but today’s air pollution is an invisible killer, largely coming from the massive volume of traffic which chokes our roads and cities.

“Scotland’s toxic air continues to break national and European safety standards with 32 designated Pollution Zones across the country where levels are deemed to be unsafe. Since Scotland missed its 2010 EU clean air deadline, over 15,000 people have died early from air pollution. The Scottish Government has failed to take this problem seriously enough.

“The Scottish Government has a new plan for clean air with its ‘Cleaner Air for Scotland’ Strategy, but much more action is needed. Cleaner Air for Scotland sets the groundwork for Low Emission Zones to be introduced in key Scottish cities, but the Government needs to commit serious funding to councils if it is to become a reality. It must also commit to reducing the amount of traffic on our roads, and tell us once and for all when it is aiming for Scottish air quality safety standards to be met across the country.

“The pea-souper smogs of the 50s were very visible, but today’s air pollution is formed by gases and particles that are so tiny you cannot see them. Sixty years ago, respiratory illness was the main health impact of air pollution. Today, air pollution particles from traffic fumes are much smaller and can cross from the lungs into the bloodstream, and are linked to strokes, heart attacks, endocrine damage and even dementia and diabetes.”

Anne Hay, an Edinburgh resident who suffers from respiratory illness connected with air pollution, said:

“Air pollution is still a real and deadly problem, worse because it’s invisible. Much more needs to be done to protect children’s growing lungs and brains.

I am affected by asthma even on days when air pollution is low.

Asthmatics are like the canaries down the coal mine, sounding an early warning.

Environment

How To Make The Shipping Industry Greener

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green shipping industry

Each and every year more damage is done to our planet. When businesses are arranging pallet delivery or any other kind of shipping, the environment usually isn’t their number one concern. However, there’s an increasing pressure for the shipping industry to go greener, particularly as our oceans are filling with plastic and climate change is occurring. Fortunately, there’s plenty of technology out there to help with this. Here’s how the freight industry is going greener.

Make Ship Scrapping Cleaner

There are approximately 51,400 merchant ships trading around the world at the moment. Although the act of transporting tonnes of cargo across the ocean every year is very damaging to the environment, the scrapping of container ships is also very harmful. Large container ships contain asbestos, heavy metals and oils which are toxic to both people and the environment during demolition. The EU has regulations in place which ensure that all European ships are disposed of in an appropriate manner at licenced yards and the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) introduced guidelines to make recycling of ships safe and environmentally friendly back in 2009, but since then only Norway, Congo and France have agreed to the policy. The IMO needs to ensure that more countries are on board with the scheme, especially India, Bangladesh and Pakistan, which are some of the worst culprits for scrapping, which may mean enforcing the regulations in the near future.

Reduce Emissions

A single large container ship can produce the same amount of emissions as 50 million cars, making international shipping one of the major contributors towards global warming. Stricter emissions regulations are needed to reduce the amount of emissions entering our atmosphere. The sulphur content within ship fuel is largely responsible for the amount of emissions being produced; studies have shown that a reduction in the sulphur content in fuel oil from 35,000 p.p.m to 1,000 p.p.m could reduce the SOx emissions by as much as 97%! The IMO has already begun to ensure that ships with the Emission Control Areas of the globe, such as the Baltic Sea, the North Sea and the English Channel, are using this lower sulphur content fuel, but it needs to be enforced around the world to make a significant difference.

As it’s not currently practical or possible to completely phase-out heavy, conventional fuels around the world, a sulphur scrubber system can be added to the exhaust system of ships to help reduce the amount of sulphur being emitted.

Better Port Management

As more and more ships are travelling around the world, congestion and large volumes of cargo can leave ports in developing countries overwhelmed. Rapidly expanding ports can be very damaging to the surrounding environment, take Shenzhen for example, it’s a collection of some of the busiest ports in China and there has been a 75% reduction in the number of mangroves along the coastline. Destroying valuable ecosystems has a knock-on effect on the rest of the country’s wildlife. Port authorities need to take responsibility for the environmental impact of construction and ensure that further expansion is carried out sustainably.

Some have suggested that instead of expansion, improved port management is needed. If port authorities can work with transport-planning bureaus, they will be able to establish more efficient ways of unloading cargo to reduce the impact on the environment caused by shipping congestion.

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Environment

Extra-Mile Water Conservation Efforts Amidst Shortage

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water conserving

While some states are literally flooding due to heavy rains and run-off, others are struggling to get the moisture they need. States like Arizona and California have faced water emergencies for the last few years; water conserving efforts from citizens help keep them out of trouble.

If your area is experiencing a water shortage, there are a few things you can do to go the extra mile.

Repair and Maintain Appliances

Leaks around the house – think showerheads, toilets, dishwashers, and more – lead to wasted water. Beyond that, the constant flow of water will cause water damage to your floors and walls. Have repairs done as soon as you spot any problems.

Sometimes, a leak won’t be evident until it gets bad. For that reason, make appointments to have your appliances inspected and maintained at least once per year. This will extend the life of each machine as well as nip water loss in the bud.

When your appliances are beyond repair, look into Energy Star rated replacements. They’re designed to use the least amount of water and energy possible, without compromising on effectiveness.

Only Run Dishwasher and Washer When Full

It might be easier to do a load of laundry a day rather than doing it once per week, but you’ll waste a lot more water this way. Save up your piles of clothes until you have enough to fully load the washing machine. You could also invest in a washing machine that senses the volume of water needed according to the volume of clothes.

The same thing goes with the dishwasher. Don’t push start until you’ve filled it to capacity. If you have to wash dishes, don’t run the water while you’re washing. Fill the sink or a small bowl a quarter of the way full and use this to wash your dishes.

Recycle Water in Your Yard

Growing a garden in your backyard is a great way to cut down on energy and water waste from food growers and manufacturers, but it will require a lot more water on your part. Gardens must be watered, and this often leads to waste.

You can reduce this waste by participating in water recycling. Using things like a rain barrel, pebble filtering system, and other tools, you can save thousands of gallons a year and still keep your landscaping and garden beautiful and healthy.

Landscape with Drought-Resistant Plants

Recycling water in your yard is a great way to reduce your usage, but you can do even more by reducing the amount of water required to keep your yard looking great. The best drought-resistant plants are those that are native to the area. In California, for example, succulents grow very well, and varieties of cactus do well in states like Arizona or Texas.

Install Water-Saving Features

The average American household uses between 80 and 100 gallons of water every single day. You obviously can’t cut out things like showering or using the toilet, but you can install a few water-saving tools to make your water use more efficient.

There are low-flow showerheads, toilets, and faucet aerators. You could also use automatic shut-off nozzles, shower timers, and grey water diverters. Any of these water saving devices can easily cut your water usage in half.

Research Laws and Ordinances for Your City

Dry states like California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Nevada must create certain laws to keep the water from running out. These laws are put into practice for the benefit of everyone, but they only work if you abide by the laws.

If you live in a state where drought is common, research your state and city’s laws. They might designate one day per week that you’re allowed to water your lawn or how full you can fill a pool. Many people are not well versed in the laws set by their states, and it would mean a lot to your community if you did your part.

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