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Blue & Green Daily: Tuesday 2 September round up

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Today on Blue & Green Tomorrow we reported on the rejection of ‘Boris Island’, the controversial plans put forward by London mayor Boris Johnson for a new hub airport in the Thames Estuary. 

We also covered the reprieve given to the threatened Great Barrier Reef, after controversial plans to dump dredged spoil on the precious ecosystem were scrapped.

Meanwhile, renowned fund manager Neil Woodford explained why he has divested from HSBC, and leading economist Joseph Stiglitz called for a reformed political system.

 

Liberal democrats set out ‘green laws’

Ahead of next year’s general election, the Liberal Democrats have set out five new ‘green laws’ that focus on making the environment a priority, including creating a sustainable transport and energy system. 

Fracking: 38% of shale gas resources at risk from water shortages

Development of the shale gas sector could be compromised by critical water shortages in key areas, according to new a report by the World Resource Institute (WRI) that warns almost 40% of shale gas sites are in arid or water-stressed regions. 

UNEP highlights ‘blue and green’ economic opportunities for small island states

Amid the third conference on small island developing states (SIDS) in Samoa, the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) has released key suggestions for countries to build a resilient blue and green economy and reconnect with their traditions and nature.

Boris Johnson: rejecting Thames estuary airport plans ‘myopic’

London mayor Boris Johnson has labelled the Airports Commission as “myopic” and “irrelevant” after the organisation announced its decision not to add the inner Thames estuary airport, nicknamed ‘Boris Island’, to its shortlist options for increasing airport capacity.

Abbot Point port developers to shelve Great Barrier Reef dredging plan

Controversial plans to dump millions of cubic metres of dredged waste onto the Great Barrier Reef have been scrapped, according to Australian media reports.

Stronger sustainable productivity needed to boost African agriculture, leaders say

Governments, businesses, NGOs and investors have met in Addis Abeba during the African Green Revolution Forum to discuss economic opportunities for the continent’s agricultural sector, as well as poverty and issues related to climate change. 

China to pursue national carbon market to cut record emissions

China, the world’s largest polluter, has confirmed plans to set regional caps and launch pilot programs that will establish trading rights linked to carbon emissions, to balance pollution with economic growth. 

UN warns frequency of extreme weather will grow with climate change

The UN is set to release a series of imagined, but probable weather forecasts to highlight how extreme weather events will increase in frequency and intensity over the next three decades.

Japanese annual Taiji cove dolphin slaughter begins

Japan’s highly controversial annual dolphin slaughter, held in the waters by the town of Taiji, has officially begun. It is expected to last six months and will result in hundreds of dolphins being herded into a cove and butchered.

Electricity Demand Reduction pilot launched in the UK to help save energy

The government has launched a £20 million Electricity Demand Reduction (EDR) pilot, offering financial incentives to encourage businesses to install measures to reduce energy consumption.

Blue & Green holiday cottages: Swallow Barn, Staffordshire

Swallow Barn enjoys views over the beautiful White Peak countryside and is available to book now through cottages4you.

HSBC could be exposed to ‘fine inflation’, warns Neil Woodford

Renowned fund manager Neil Woodford, who left Invesco Perpetual to start Woodford Investment Management earlier this year, has revealed he has sold all of his stock in HSBC due to the bank’s exposure to increasing fines for past wrongdoings. 

How scientists feel about climate change: Prof Brendan Mackey

As part of a unique new project, academics from around Australia have handwritten letters describing how they feel about climate change. In this letter, Prof Brendan Mackey, director of the Griffith Climate Change Response Program, describes how climate scientists have been ignored, and apologises to the planet for the damage humanity has wrought upon it. 

Joseph Stiglitz: capitalism needs reformed political system to thrive again

Nobel winner and leading economist Joseph E. Stiglitz has argued that modern democracies have failed to ensure markets’ competitiveness, thereby causing inequality and wealth gaps, and called for simple measures that could boost new growth and stability.

Photo: Sanja Gjenero via Free Images

 

Economy

Will Self-Driving Cars Be Better for the Environment?

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self-driving cars for green environment
Shutterstock Licensed Photo - By Zapp2Photo | https://www.shutterstock.com/g/zapp2photo

Technologists, engineers, lawmakers, and the general public have been excitedly debating about the merits of self-driving cars for the past several years, as companies like Waymo and Uber race to get the first fully autonomous vehicles on the market. Largely, the concerns have been about safety and ethics; is a self-driving car really capable of eliminating the human errors responsible for the majority of vehicular accidents? And if so, who’s responsible for programming life-or-death decisions, and who’s held liable in the event of an accident?

But while these questions continue being debated, protecting people on an individual level, it’s worth posing a different question: how will self-driving cars impact the environment?

The Big Picture

The Department of Energy attempted to answer this question in clear terms, using scientific research and existing data sets to project the short-term and long-term environmental impact that self-driving vehicles could have. Its findings? The emergence of self-driving vehicles could essentially go either way; it could reduce energy consumption in transportation by as much as 90 percent, or increase it by more than 200 percent.

That’s a margin of error so wide it might as well be a total guess, but there are too many unknown variables to form a solid conclusion. There are many ways autonomous vehicles could influence our energy consumption and environmental impact, and they could go well or poorly, depending on how they’re adopted.

Driver Reduction?

One of the big selling points of autonomous vehicles is their capacity to reduce the total number of vehicles—and human drivers—on the road. If you’re able to carpool to work in a self-driving vehicle, or rely on autonomous public transportation, you’ll spend far less time, money, and energy on your own car. The convenience and efficiency of autonomous vehicles would therefore reduce the total miles driven, and significantly reduce carbon emissions.

There’s a flip side to this argument, however. If autonomous vehicles are far more convenient and less expensive than previous means of travel, it could be an incentive for people to travel more frequently, or drive to more destinations they’d otherwise avoid. In this case, the total miles driven could actually increase with the rise of self-driving cars.

As an added consideration, the increase or decrease in drivers on the road could result in more or fewer vehicle collisions, respectively—especially in the early days of autonomous vehicle adoption, when so many human drivers are still on the road. Car accident injury cases, therefore, would become far more complicated, and the roads could be temporarily less safe.

Deadheading

Deadheading is a term used in trucking and ridesharing to refer to miles driven with an empty load. Assume for a moment that there’s a fleet of self-driving vehicles available to pick people up and carry them to their destinations. It’s a convenient service, but by necessity, these vehicles will spend at least some of their time driving without passengers, whether it’s spent waiting to pick someone up or en route to their location. The increase in miles from deadheading could nullify the potential benefits of people driving fewer total miles, or add to the damage done by their increased mileage.

Make and Model of Car

Much will also depend on the types of cars equipped to be self-driving. For example, Waymo recently launched a wave of self-driving hybrid minivans, capable of getting far better mileage than a gas-only vehicle. If the majority of self-driving cars are electric or hybrids, the environmental impact will be much lower than if they’re converted from existing vehicles. Good emissions ratings are also important here.

On the other hand, the increased demand for autonomous vehicles could put more pressure on factory production, and make older cars obsolete. In that case, the gas mileage savings could be counteracted by the increased environmental impact of factory production.

The Bottom Line

Right now, there are too many unanswered questions to make a confident determination whether self-driving vehicles will help or harm the environment. Will we start driving more, or less? How will they handle dead time? What kind of models are going to be on the road?

Engineers and the general public are in complete control of how this develops in the near future. Hopefully, we’ll be able to see all the safety benefits of having autonomous vehicles on the road, but without any of the extra environmental impact to deal with.

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Economy

New Zealand to Switch to Fully Renewable Energy by 2035

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renewable energy policy
Shutterstock Licensed Photo - By Eviart / https://www.shutterstock.com/g/adrian825

New Zealand’s prime minister-elect Jacinda Ardern is already taking steps towards reducing the country’s carbon footprint. She signed a coalition deal with NZ First in October, aiming to generate 100% of the country’s energy from renewable sources by 2035.

New Zealand is already one of the greenest countries in the world, sourcing over 80% of its energy for its 4.7 million people from renewable resources like hydroelectric, geothermal and wind. The majority of its electricity comes from hydro-power, which generated 60% of the country’s energy in 2016. Last winter, renewable generation peaked at 93%.

Now, Ardern is taking on the challenge of eliminating New Zealand’s remaining use of fossil fuels. One of the biggest obstacles will be filling in the gap left by hydropower sources during dry conditions. When lake levels drop, the country relies on gas and coal to provide energy. Eliminating fossil fuels will require finding an alternative source to avoid spikes in energy costs during droughts.

Business NZ’s executive director John Carnegie told Bloomberg he believes Ardern needs to balance her goals with affordability, stating, “It’s completely appropriate to have a focus on reducing carbon emissions, but there needs to be an open and transparent public conversation about the policies and how they are delivered.”

The coalition deal outlined a few steps towards achieving this, including investing more in solar, which currently only provides 0.1% of the country’s energy. Ardern’s plans also include switching the electricity grid to renewable energy, investing more funds into rail transport, and switching all government vehicles to green fuel within a decade.

Zero net emissions by 2050

Beyond powering the country’s electricity grid with 100% green energy, Ardern also wants to reach zero net emissions by 2050. This ambitious goal is very much in line with her focus on climate change throughout the course of her campaign. Environmental issues were one of her top priorities from the start, which increased her appeal with young voters and helped her become one of the youngest world leaders at only 37.

Reaching zero net emissions would require overcoming challenging issues like eliminating fossil fuels in vehicles. Ardern hasn’t outlined a plan for reaching this goal, but has suggested creating an independent commission to aid in the transition to a lower carbon economy.

She also set a goal of doubling the number of trees the country plants per year to 100 million, a goal she says is “absolutely achievable” using land that is marginal for farming animals.

Greenpeace New Zealand climate and energy campaigner Amanda Larsson believes that phasing out fossil fuels should be a priority for the new prime minister. She says that in order to reach zero net emissions, Ardern “must prioritize closing down coal, putting a moratorium on new fossil fuel plants, building more wind infrastructure, and opening the playing field for household and community solar.”

A worldwide shift to renewable energy

Addressing climate change is becoming more of a priority around the world and many governments are assessing how they can reduce their reliance on fossil fuels and switch to environmentally-friendly energy sources. Sustainable energy is becoming an increasingly profitable industry, giving companies more of an incentive to invest.

Ardern isn’t alone in her climate concerns, as other prominent world leaders like Justin Trudeau and Emmanuel Macron have made renewable energy a focus of their campaigns. She isn’t the first to set ambitious goals, either. Sweden and Norway share New Zealand’s goal of net zero emissions by 2045 and 2030, respectively.

Scotland already sources more than half of its electricity from renewable sources and aims to fully transition by 2020, while France announced plans in September to stop fossil fuel production by 2040. This would make it the first country to do so, and the first to end the sale of gasoline and diesel vehicles.

Many parts of the world still rely heavily on coal, but if these countries are successful in phasing out fossil fuels and transitioning to renewable resources, it could serve as a turning point. As other world leaders see that switching to sustainable energy is possible – and profitable – it could be the start of a worldwide shift towards environmentally-friendly energy.

Sources: https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2017-11-06/green-dream-risks-energy-security-as-kiwis-aim-for-zero-carbon

https://www.reuters.com/article/us-france-hydrocarbons/france-plans-to-end-oil-and-gas-production-by-2040-idUSKCN1BH1AQ

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