All markets, especially financial ones, need participants that have what Adam Smith would call an internal witness who tells them whether their behaviour is right or wrong. Simon Leadbetter explores the founding father of modern capitalism’s views on moral sentiments.
Mis-selling various insurances, laundering money for drug barons and the mafia, manipulating Libor rates, charging exorbitant commissions and crashing the global economy are just some of the charges that can be laid at the door of the financial services industry.
Interestingly, many of the people who have participated in these activities give to charity, would happily help someone in trouble, care for their children, look after their elderly relatives and treat the family pet well.
Adam Smith learnt from the great philosopher David Hume, not least that, “Man, born in a family, is compelled to maintain society, from necessity, from natural inclination, and from habit.”
As Smith himself put it, “How selfish soever man may be supposed, there are evidently some principles in his nature, which interest him in the fortune of others, and render their happiness necessary to him, though he derives nothing from it except the pleasure of seeing it.”
We have an innate need or desire to see others do well.
It was Smith expanding on his thoughts on human morality in his lectures that led to The Theory of Moral Sentiments being published in 1759: the book he viewed as superior to his better known work, known colloquially as The Wealth of Nations.
He made a key step in exploring social sympathy – the difference between the social being, one who has sympathy for others, and the work that social beings do; “Man continually standing in need of the assistance of others, must fall upon some means to procure their help.”
Smith’s genius was to explain the elegance and speed with which markets have addressed the need for a means of procurement.
“This he does not merely by coaxing and courting; he does not expect it unless he can turn it to your advantage or make it appear to be so. Mere love is not sufficient for it, till he applies in some way to your self love. A bargain does this in the easiest manner.”
The bargain is the exchange of money for goods. Our ability to interact peaceably in the market situation where one person sells goods and another buys them with money as the surest means of exchange.
Something has clearly gone wrong in capitalism and financial capitalism in particular, in that there is a significant disconnect between the personal morality of the person and work that he undertakes. A father or mother who loves their children, wants to them to prosper, and would kill to protect them, can allow hundreds of other children to die through their day-to-day trading in equities, commodities or currencies.
Obviously, Adam Smith was writing about an emerging mercantile capitalism of the 18th century, which was far from the overbearing financial capitalism we have today. He believed that the majority of us have an imagined ‘other’ inside us; an internal witness that keeps our behaviour moral and law-abiding in markets.
Effective competition will shake out the rogues and rascals. Why else would the vast majority behave morally when there is little or no chance of being caught? Why did only a tiny, tiny minority loot and riot during the breakdown of law and order last summer?
However, Smith never imagined the financial system that would evolve and it is wrong for those of us who believe in free markets to use his name and works to justify unfettered financial capitalism. Yes, the internal witness should do the fettering in all of our activities, but when that has failed, as it self-evidently has in financial capitalism, civil society and its elected governments must step in.
Those who don’t have this internal witness are anti-social beings whether they are thieves, murderers or city workers who profit from fraud or others’ suffering. At some point in the sorry saga of financial abuse, the person who made millions committing fraud on the financial markets should suffer a fate proportionate to that of the person who stole a bottle of mineral water in the riots of 2011.
Finally, it is very easy to judge others who fall below the standards that we expect, but far harder to examine our own manifold contributions to the current economic mess we’re in. We should all look to our own internal witness when it comes to what we invest in and what we consume.
What Kitchen Suits Your Style? Modern, Classic or Shaker?
A kitchen is the centre of the home. Your kitchen ranges between where friends and family gather, talk about their day, cook meals, have drinks, to somewhere you can just enjoy each other’s company. The kitchen is the heart of the home. But, everyone’s lifestyle is different. Everyone’s taste is different. So, you need a kitchen that not only mirrors your lifestyle but matches your taste too. Whilst some prefer a more traditional design, others want a modern feel or flair – and it’s all down to personal taste.
When it comes to redesigning your kitchen, what style would you go for? It’s a difficult one isn’t it. With so many different styles to go for, how can you know exactly what you want until you’ve seen it in action? Leading kitchen designer, Roman Kitchens, based in Essex, have provided three examples of bespoke kitchens and styles they specialise in, accompanied with beautiful images. This design guide will get you one step closer to picking your dream kitchen for your home.
New home in the city centre? Or even a sleek new modern build? You want a trendy and modern kitchen to reflect your city lifestyle. In modern kitchen design, colours are bolder and fresher, with sleek design and utilities that are distinctive and vibrant.
This modern kitchen is sleek and smooth with flawless design and beauty. Minimalism doesn’t stop this kitchen standing out. Featured walls of wood and vibrant mint green draw the eye, whilst the white surfaces reflect the light, illuminating every nook and cranny of this kitchen. This kitchen features products from Rotpunkt, innovators of modern kitchen design. Made with German engineering, a Rotpunkt Kitchen is the ultimate modern addition to your home. Rotpunkt Kitchens have timeless design and amazing functionality, they work for every purpose and are eco-friendly. Sourced from natural materials, a Rotpunkt kitchen uses 37% less timber, conserving natural forests and being more environmentally conscious.
Prefer a homely and traditional feel? Classic kitchens are warm, welcoming and filled with wood. Wood flooring, wood fixtures, wood furniture – you name it! You can bring a rustic feel to your urban home with a classic kitchen. Subtle colours and beautiful finishes, Classic kitchens are for taking it back to the basics with a definitive look and feel.
With stated handles for cupboards, Classic kitchens are effortlessly timeless. They convey an elegant but relaxing nature. Giving off countryside vibes, natural elements convey a British countryside feel. The wood featured in a classic kitchen can range between oaks and walnut, creating a warmth and original feel to your home. Soft English heritage colours add a certain mood to your home, softening the light making it cosier.
Any kitchen planner will tell you that the meeting point between traditional and modern design, is a Shaker kitchen. They have a distinctive style and innovative feel. Shakers are fresh, mixing different colour tones with stylish wood and vinyl. The most important feature of a Shaker kitchen is functionality – every feature needs to serve a purpose in the kitchen. Paired with stylish and unique furniture, a Shaker kitchen is an ideal addition to any home.
The ultimate marriage between Classic and Modern kitchens, this Shaker kitchen has deep colour tones with copper emphasis features. All the fittings and fixtures blur the line of modern and tradition, with a Classic look but modern colour vibe. Unique furniture and design make Shaker Kitchens perfect for the middle ground in kitchen design. Minimal but beautifully dressed. Traditional but bold and modern at the same time. Storage solutions are part of the functionality of Shaker kitchens, but don’t detour from conveying yours as a luxury kitchen.
Whatever you choose for your new kitchen, be it Modern, Classic or Shaker – pick whatever suits you. Taste is, and always will be, subjective – it’s down to you.
Ways Green Preppers Are Trying to Protect their Privacy
Environmental activists are not given the admiration that they deserve. A recent poll by Gallup found that a whopping 32% of Americans still doubt the existence of global warming. The government’s attitude is even worse.
Many global warming activists and green preppers have raised the alarm bell on climate change over the past few years. Government officials have taken notice and begun tracking their activity online. Even former National Guard officers have admitted that green preppers and climate activists are being targeted for terrorist watchlists.
Of course, the extent of their surveillance depends on the context of activism. People that make benign claims about climate change are unlikely to end up on a watchlist, although it is possible if they make allusions to their disdain of the government. However, even the most pacifistic and well intentioned environmental activists may unwittingly trigger some algorithm and be on the wrong side of a criminal investigation.
How could something like this happen? Here are some possibilities:
- They could share a post on social media from a climate extremist group or another individual on the climate watchlist.
- They could overly politicize their social media content, such as being highly critical of the president.
- They could use figures of speech that may be misinterpreted as threats.
- They might praise the goals of a climate change extremist organization that as previously resorted to violence, even if they don’t condone the actual means.
Preppers and environmental activists must do everything in their power to protect their privacy. Failing to do so could cost them their reputation, future career opportunities or even their freedom. Here are some ways that they are contacting themselves.
Living Off the Grid and Only Venturing to Civilization for Online Use
The more digital footprints you leave behind, the greater attention you draw. People that hold controversial views on environmentalism or doomsday prepping must minimize their digital paper trail.
Living off the grid is probably the best way to protect your privacy. You can make occasional trips to town to use the Wi-Fi and stock up on supplies.
Know the Surveillance Policies of Public Wi-Fi Providers
Using Wi-Fi away from your home can be a good way to protect your privacy.However, choosing the right public Wi-Fi providers is going to be very important.
Keep in mind that some corporate coffee shops such a Starbucks can store tapes for up to 60 days. Mom and pop businesses don’t have the technology nor the interest to store them that long. They generally store tips for only 24 hours and delete them afterwards. This gives you a good window of opportunity to post your thoughts on climate change without being detected.
Always use a VPN with a No Logging Policy
Using a VPN is one of the best ways to protect your online privacy. However, some of these providers do a much better job than others. What is a VPN and what should you look for when choosing one? Here are some things to look for when making a selection:
- Make sure they are based in a country that has strict laws on protecting user privacy. VPNs that are based out of Switzerland, Panama for the British Virgin Islands are always good bets.
- Look for VPN that has a strict no logging policy. Some VPNs will actually track the websites that you visit, which almost entirely defeats the purpose. Most obviously much better than this, but many also track Your connections and logging data. You want to use a VPN that doesn’t keep any logs at all.
- Try to choose a VPN that has an Internet kill switch. This means that all content will stop serving if your VPN connection drops, which prevents your personal data from leaking out of the VPN tunnel.
You will be much safer if you use a high-quality VPN consistently, especially if you have controversial views on climate related issues or doomsday prepping.