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In pictures: The secrets of Greenland’s ice sheet

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Diana Ibáñez López takes a look at Greenland’s ice sheets, the secrets they hold and how scientists have unlocked them over decades of research.

This article was originally published on Timeline. To download the Timeline app click here.

The Brief

Scientists were aghast when in 2006 a lake with 4,000 Olympic swimming pools’ worth of water disappeared into Greenland’s ice sheet in just two hours. In June 2015, after nearly a decade of research, they worked out why it happened: When the lake’s drainage system backs up, the ice sheet cracks all over briefly, evacuating the water to the sea. 

A preacher realized 250 years ago that Greenland’s ice was full of secrets — including the key to understanding Earth’s climate history. Ever since, researchers have been fascinated by how the ice sheet shifts, changes and melts.  

Three times the size of Texas and over 3 kilometers thick in places, the ice sheet contains enough water to raise the oceans by 6 meters. And as the world warms it is melting faster than ever before. How have researchers explored this Arctic expanse, and what have they discovered there?

1761—1762 – Missionary studies ice, inspires climatology

Old Nuuk, Greenland

Protestant missionary David Cranz became fascinated with ice when he spent a year preaching to Eskimo tribes. It’s not surprising: Greenland, the biggest island in the world, is almost entirely “glazed,” as Cranz put it.

Map of Greenland © US Geological Survey, 1976

Cranz wanted to know how the ice was formed and why it “dissolved” again. His observations of glaciers laid the groundwork for future surveys and early climatologists, who realized that this ancient ice was a logbook for Earth’s climate.

Twelve summers logged in a 19-centimeter section of ice.

1848—1852 – Scientist maps Greenland, discovers Inland Ice

Disko Bugt, Greenland

Disko Bugt, GreenlandDanish geologist Hinrich Rink tried to map all Greenland’s glaciers. He created the first record of the ice margin and gave the vast, unexplored interior a name: Indlandsisen — “Inland Ice.

Lithograph of the ice margin © Hinrich Rink, 1850

Rink’s work caused a splash, giving credence to the theory of Ice Ages at a time when most people attributed changes in the climate to the stars. He sparked a trend in glacier research, and even has one named after him.

The Rink glacier flows from the Inland Ice into Baffin Bay. © NASA

July 1875 – Timing the world’s fastest glacier

Ilulissat Icefjord, Greenland

Glaciers are known to move, a bit. Norwegian geologist Amund Helland wanted to know how fast, so he measured the glacier front near the west coast trading town Ilulissat. As it happens, this glacier drains into the world’s fastest ice stream, currently moving 19 meters a day.

Movement of the Sermeq Kujalleg glacier front

In 2004 the Ilulissat Icefjord was declared a UNESCO World Heritage site, but this doesn’t mean it won’t change. The glacier retreats in summer and grows in winter, but since it was first mapped in 1850, it has shrunk by about 40 kilometers.

Glacier front © Greenland Travel. CC

May 1888—May 1889 – Zoologist crosses ice sheet on skis, proves its existence

Puissortoq, Greenland

Fridtjof Nansen needed a break after handing in his Ph.D. on the nervous system of the hagfish, so he set off to ski across Greenland. Nansen’s trip was the first to cross the Inland Ice, proving that it extended from coast to coast without interruption.

Fridtjof Nansen in Arctic gear © Henry van der Weyde: National Library

After the crossing, the team, which included local Greenlanders, wintered at a coastal camp. There Nansen studied Inuit culture, inspiring later explorer-ethnographers such as Knud Rasmussen.

Nansen’s team

1935—1936 – Brits travel to Greenland to watch the weather

Kangerdlugssuak, Greenland

A yearlong expedition led by explorer Augustine Courtauld and geologist Lawrence Wager set out to take meteorological readings three times a day and keep track of rainfall. They found plenty to do besides: The team studied the ozone layer, the aurora, the earth’s magnetism…and went on long, rugged walks.

Crossing a ravine in the ice sheet © General Photographic Agency: Getty

The readings were transmitted back to the UK and included in the weather forecasts. This was also the period ofthe first aerial photography, which opened up the Inland Ice to detailed surveying.

Inland Ice photographed from a plane © Børge Fristrup

1948—1953 – French explorer ushers in modern glaciology

Eqip Sermia glacier, Greenland

French explorer Paul-Émile Victor also set out to take measurements. The task he set his team was huge: recording the profile of the underside of the Inland Ice, to work out just how massive the ice covering Greenland was.

Paul-Émile had crossed the Inland Ice in 1934.

Like Nansen’s, this expedition revolutionized Arctic travel, introducing parachutes and motorized convoys with tracks — equipment probably left over from World War II.

1964—1966 – First ice cores give a glimpse of the past

Inland Ice, Greenland

Ice cores are samples of exceptionally well-preserved sections of the ice sheet that have suffered no melt. The oldest, drilled out of Greenland ice, goes back 123,000 years.

Borehole © Joe Raedle: Getty

These giant ice-lollies capture Earth’s climate history, showing details such as snowfalls and temperatures in year-by-year layers.

Freshly harvested ice core © Jay Kyne, IDDO

1968—1976 – Ice-penetrating radar reveals another landscape

Inland Ice, Greenland

The task the French expedition took on with tanks, parachutes and sketches was completed by the US army using radar that could look through 3 kilometers of ice.

© Gordon Hamilton, via polarfield.com

This led to the creation of the first accurate topography beneath the Inland Ice. Radar scans have continued for decades, and in 2013 they revealed the world’s longest canyon hidden beneath the ice.

The 750-km long canyon serves as drainage for the ice sheet. © J. Bamber, University of Bristol

1993—2013 – Soil tests show when Greenland was last green

Idaho, US

An ice core from deep in the Inland Ice showed that the last time Greenland was completely ice-free was over 2.5 million years ago. This means that the heart of the world’s second-largest ice sheet has been in place since then, despite large variations in climate. It also gives us a better idea of how much warming Greenland can endure before its ice melts completely.

Ice core with soil sediment © Paul Bierman, University of Vermont

March 2002 – Satellite takes over from aerial photography, shows growth

800 kilometers above Earth

Envisat was launched to monitor the Earth’s atmosphere and measure changes in the oceans, land surface and ice. The data refined the map of Greenland’s ice sheet, showing 6 centimeters of growth per year on the Inland Ice. The coastal regions of the ice, however, continue to melt ever faster.

Envisat image of the coast of Greenland © ESA:AFP-Getty

July 8—12, 2012 – ‘Extreme surface melt’

Pasadena, CA, US

A NASA scientist saw, in satellite images, that about 40% of Greenland’s ice sheet thawed at the surface. He thought it must be data error, but two other observatories confirmed the melt. Four days later, the Inland Ice was 97% thawed.

July 8 (left) and July 12 (right). The melt zone is shown in red. © NASA

On average, half the surface ice melts in a summer. But this speed melt wasn’t entirely unnatural: ice core analysis shows melt events happen in Greenland every 150 years or so. The last one was in 1889, so this one was roughly on schedule.

Meltpond © NASA

March 2009—2016 – Operation IceBridge maps the ice sheet in 3D

Greenland

This ongoing NASA mission aims to survey all of the Earth’s polar ice from the air, then create a 3D model of both the Arctic and Antarctic ice sheets,  including all of their interior layers.

A 3D animation of the operation shows radar penetrating the ice. © NASA

NASA wants to know how the hidden landscape affects ice movement, in order to better understand the interplay between climate and melting.

Radar image of ice layers and bedrock © Theresa Stumpf, CReSIS

May 6—July 8, 2013 – Solar rover tests the ice

Summit Station, Greenland

Equipped with ice-penetrating radar, NASA’s GROVER rover has a mission similar to the 18th-century missionary who became fascinated with ice: to find out how the ice sheet was formed and predict when it might melt.

© NASA

GROVER is solar-powered, a good pollution-free option in the Arctic summer, where the sun never sets. The rover was based at Summit Station, a popular year-round research camp.

Camp at Summit Station © Joe Raedle:Getty

June 2015 – Disappearing lakes reveal ice sheet plumbing system

North Lake, Greenland

Lakes on the ice sheet have been draining mysteriously fast. First spotted in July 2006, when a 5-square-kilometer lake vanished in two hours, the science behind the phenomenon remained an enigma for years. Scientists feared the water could lubricate the ice sheet: If the whole thing slid into the ocean, it would raise the global sea level by 6 meters and cause catastrophic flooding.

© Joe Raedle:Getty

To se what was going on, researchers rigged the ice with GPS. As the lake filled up (and disappeared) again, they discovered a rapid draining system: When the ice sheet’s natural plumbing is at full capacity, water beneath the ice pushes a huge block up. It floats out of place, creating a hydrofracture — multiple cracks under the lake — through which the lake drains at speed.

North Lake regularly drains the equivalent of 4,000 Olympic swimming pools © Peter Prokosch, GRID-Arendal

The cracks close when the block settles back into place, and the lake returns to a normal plumbing rhythm through a single vertical river.

Photo: Neil and Kathy Carey via Flickr

Further reading:

Will carbon trading save the world?

Vast ice structures discovered beneath Greenland ice sheet

Huge canyon discovered under Greenland ice

Carbon prices should increase up to 200% to avoid tipping point, says study

Greenland ice melt and sea level rise ‘greatly underestimated’

Environment

4 Common Items That Can be Reused Again and Again

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reuse reduce recycle plastic bottles etc
Shutterstock Licensed Photo - By Vanatchanan | https://www.shutterstock.com/g/vanatchanan%20buahom

As a society we are getting much better at taking our obligations to the world and environment around us more seriously. This is undoubtedly a good thing! The effects of climate change are beginning to manifest across the world, and this is turning the issue from an abstract threat into a very real danger. Trying to introduce some greener, more eco-friendly practices into your life isn’t just a great way of doing something beneficial for society and the world around you. It is a wonderful way of engaging positively with the world and carries with it numerous psychological benefits.

Royalty Free Photo

Being a greener, more ecologically friendly person doesn’t require any dramatic life changes. Breaking or making a few small habits is all it takes to make your life a greener one. In this article we look at one of the easiest, yet most effective green practices to get into: reusing everyday items.

Jars and Containers

Glass and metal are widely recycled, and recycling is a good thing! However, consider whether any containers you buy, whether it’s a tub of ice cream or a jar of coffee, can be washed out and reused for something else. Mason jars, for example, can be used to store homemade pasta sauce and can be washed for future use. Once you start thinking about it, you will find endless opportunities to reuse your old containers.

Soda Bottles

An ice-cold soda is a wonderful treat on a hot day, but buying soda can get expensive, and the manufacturing and distribution of the drinks themselves isn’t great for the environment. However, by holding on to your old soda bottles and repurposing them as water bottles, you can save money on drinks, or use them to measure out water for your garden.

Plastic Bags

Most of the time groceries come in paper bags, which are better for the environment than the plastic alternatives, but they are less durable and thus harder to reuse. Whenever the store places your items in a plastic bag, hang onto it so you can reuse the bags again. If you want to take it one step further, consider looking into buying some personalized recycled bags. These bags are designed to last for a long time and are made of recycled materials. They look striking and unique, they’ll turn heads, and maybe even attitudes!

Seeds

If you’re a keen gardener, then you will already probably know how to reseed your plants in order to ensure a fresh crop after each plant’s lifecycle. If you have space in your garden, or haven’t yet tried your hand at gardening, then consider planting a small vegetable plot. Growing your own veggies means that you’ll be helping to cut back on the emissions generated by their transport and production. The best part about growing your own food in this way is that, by harvesting properly and saving the seeds, you can be set up with fresh vegetables for life!

Reusing and recycling common household items is an easy way to make your world a little bit greener. Once you start looking for these opportunities you’ll realize that they’re everywhere!

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Environment

These 5 Green Office Mistakes Are Costing You Money

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eco-friendly green offices
Shutterstock Licensed Photo - By Stokkete | https://www.shutterstock.com/g/cyano

The sudden interest in green business is very encouraging. According to recent reports, 42% of all companies have rated sustainability as an important element of their business. Unfortunately, the focus on sustainability will only last if companies can find ways to use it to boost their ROI.

Many businesses get so caught up in being socially conscious that they hope the financial aspect of it takes care of itself. The good news is that there are plenty of ways to go green and boost your net income at the same time.

Here are some important mistakes that you will want to avoid.

Only implementing sustainability on micro-scale

The biggest reason that brands are going green is to improve their optics with their customers. Too many businesses are making very minor changes, such as processing paperwork online and calling themselves green.

Customers have become wary of these types of companies. If you want to earn their business, you are going to need to go all the way. Bring in a green business consultant and make every feasible change to demonstrate that you are a green organization from top to bottom.

Not prioritizing investments by long-term ROI

It isn’t realistic to build an entirely green organization overnight. You will need to allocate your capital wisely.

Before investing in any green assets or services, you should always conduct a long-term cost benefit analysis. The initial investment for some green services may be over $20,000. If they don’t shave your cost by at least $3,000 a year, they probably aren’t worth the investment.

Determine which green investments will have the best pay off over the next 10 years. Make these investments before anything else. Then compare your options within each of those categories.

Implementing green changes without a plan

Effective, long-term planning is the key to business success. This principle needs to be applied to green organizations as well.

Before implementing a green strategy, you must answer the following questions:

  • How will I communicate my green business philosophy to my customers?
  • How will running a green business affect my revenue stream?
  • How will adopting green business strategies change my monthly expenses? Will they increase or decrease them?
  • How will my company finance green upgrades and other investments?

The biggest mistake that too many green businesses make is being overly optimistic with these forecasts. Take the time to collect objective data and make your decisions accordingly. This will help you run a much more profitable green business.

Not considering the benefits of green printing

Too many companies believe that going paperless is the only way to run a green organization. Unfortunately, going 100% paperless it’s not feasible for most companies.

Rather than aim for an unrealistic goal, consider the option of using a more environmentally friendly printer. It won’t be perfect, but it will be better than the alternative.

According to experts from Doranix, environmental printers have several benefits:

  • They can process paper that has been completely recycled.
  • They consume less energy than traditional printers.
  • They use ink that is more environmentally friendly.

You want to take a look at different green printers and compare them. You’ll find that some will meet your needs as a green business.

Poorly communicating your green business strategy to customers

Brand positioning doesn’t happen on its own. If you want to run a successful green business, you must communicate your message to customers as clearly as possible. You must also avoid the appearance that you are patronizing them.

The best approach is to be clear when you were first making the change. I’ll make an announcement about your company‘s commitment to sustainability.

You also want to reinforce this message overtime by using green labels on all of your products. You don’t have to be blatant with your messaging at this stage. Simply provide a small, daily reminder on your products and invoices.

Finally, it is a good idea to participate in green business seminars and other events. If your community has a local Green Chamber of Commerce, you should consider joining as well.

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