Everyone remembers the advice given to Dustin Hoffman’s character in “The Graduate”: “Plastics.” In the 1960s and 1970s, the plastic industry was just getting started, but today, we truly understand the rewards of working with the exceptionally malleable material. Plastic can take any shape; it can be both strong and flexible, both broad and detailed, both rugged and lightweight. It is the material of the present and the future, which means getting into plastics is always a good idea. If you need more proof, read on.
Plastics Are Going Green
It seems that the plastics industry and environmentalists have always butted heads, but with advancements in technology, plastic is quickly becoming one of the most sustainable materials on the planet. Almost all plastics manufactured today are nearly infinitely recyclable, which keeps them out of landfills and ocean garbage patches. Non-toxic resins and colorants are widely in-use, keeping dangerous pollutants from affecting customers and communities. Green policies ― like energy-efficient equipment, transport, and packaging ― save plastic manufacturers money, so businesses have plenty of incentives to be sustainable. For the most part it is consumers, not the industry, who are responsible for producing plastic waste, and enhanced education initiatives could curb even that.
Plastic is already nearly everywhere, from food packaging to electronics, which means plastic is integral to modern life. A future without plastics is utterly unforeseeable, which means that the time is now to break into the plastic industry.
The Technology Is Still Improving
Though the very first plastic was invented over a century ago, the material did not become popular until World War II, and even then, it was a rare commodity. The real plastic revolution occurred in the 1960s, when various types became incorporated into food packaging, furniture, clothing, tools, and more. Still, despite plastic’s now-ubiquity, it is a relatively new technology, and science still has much to learn.
Breakthroughs in plastic continue to occur, whether they be advances in manufacturing efficiency, like the universal shut-off nozzle for injection molding, or development of new types of plastic, like fascinating water-based co-polymers with self-healing properties. New personal 3-D printers, which make small-scale plastic manufacturing available in the home or office, are prime examples of the rapid improvement of plastic manufacturing technology, as the printers become smaller, faster, and more adaptable seemingly every week.
Experts have more than a few predictions for the future of plastic technologies. Most expect customers to demand more intricate, precision plastic parts, as customized manufacturing becomes more possible. Automated manufacturing using smart robots is also a likely development which will decrease costs and increase efficiency. As long as plastic technology continues to progress, the industry will remain relevant and strong.
The Industry Is Huge
In America, plastic is the third largest manufacturing industry, meaning it is absolutely massive. More than 900,000 Americans are employed in making plastics, and when plastic suppliers are included, that number jumps to more than 1.4 million U.S. workers. Every state boasts a plastic manufacturing plant, and most more than one; in total, there are roughly 16,000 factories across the country. In 2013 alone, the nation produced an astounding 107.5 billion pounds of plastic ― roughly 53.7 million tons.
The U.S. plastics industry is so large because the entire world relies on our nation’s supply. The U.S. exports plastics around the world, and some of the largest countries ― in particular, China, Canada, and Mexico, which are the top three importers ― depend on regular shipments of plastic goods. Even as the world emerges from the recession of the late ‘00s, many manufacturing industries continue to flounder, but plastics is only gaining in size and strength.
The Industry Is Strong
Between 2011 and 2012 ― at the height of the recession ― the plastic industry grew more than 5.7 percent, from $237.6 billion to $251 billion. Every year, plastic manufacturers are optimistic enough to invest billions of dollars in new capital equipment, demonstrating that they foresee a long and fruitful future in the industry. In fact, experts estimate that by 2018, the injection mold market alone should reach more than $252 billion, a growth of more than 5.6 percent for that particular sector. The need for plastics is only increasing, demonstrating that the industry will remain strong for the foreseeable future.
Will Self-Driving Cars Be Better for the Environment?
Technologists, engineers, lawmakers, and the general public have been excitedly debating about the merits of self-driving cars for the past several years, as companies like Waymo and Uber race to get the first fully autonomous vehicles on the market. Largely, the concerns have been about safety and ethics; is a self-driving car really capable of eliminating the human errors responsible for the majority of vehicular accidents? And if so, who’s responsible for programming life-or-death decisions, and who’s held liable in the event of an accident?
But while these questions continue being debated, protecting people on an individual level, it’s worth posing a different question: how will self-driving cars impact the environment?
The Big Picture
The Department of Energy attempted to answer this question in clear terms, using scientific research and existing data sets to project the short-term and long-term environmental impact that self-driving vehicles could have. Its findings? The emergence of self-driving vehicles could essentially go either way; it could reduce energy consumption in transportation by as much as 90 percent, or increase it by more than 200 percent.
That’s a margin of error so wide it might as well be a total guess, but there are too many unknown variables to form a solid conclusion. There are many ways autonomous vehicles could influence our energy consumption and environmental impact, and they could go well or poorly, depending on how they’re adopted.
One of the big selling points of autonomous vehicles is their capacity to reduce the total number of vehicles—and human drivers—on the road. If you’re able to carpool to work in a self-driving vehicle, or rely on autonomous public transportation, you’ll spend far less time, money, and energy on your own car. The convenience and efficiency of autonomous vehicles would therefore reduce the total miles driven, and significantly reduce carbon emissions.
There’s a flip side to this argument, however. If autonomous vehicles are far more convenient and less expensive than previous means of travel, it could be an incentive for people to travel more frequently, or drive to more destinations they’d otherwise avoid. In this case, the total miles driven could actually increase with the rise of self-driving cars.
As an added consideration, the increase or decrease in drivers on the road could result in more or fewer vehicle collisions, respectively—especially in the early days of autonomous vehicle adoption, when so many human drivers are still on the road. Car accident injury cases, therefore, would become far more complicated, and the roads could be temporarily less safe.
Deadheading is a term used in trucking and ridesharing to refer to miles driven with an empty load. Assume for a moment that there’s a fleet of self-driving vehicles available to pick people up and carry them to their destinations. It’s a convenient service, but by necessity, these vehicles will spend at least some of their time driving without passengers, whether it’s spent waiting to pick someone up or en route to their location. The increase in miles from deadheading could nullify the potential benefits of people driving fewer total miles, or add to the damage done by their increased mileage.
Make and Model of Car
Much will also depend on the types of cars equipped to be self-driving. For example, Waymo recently launched a wave of self-driving hybrid minivans, capable of getting far better mileage than a gas-only vehicle. If the majority of self-driving cars are electric or hybrids, the environmental impact will be much lower than if they’re converted from existing vehicles. Good emissions ratings are also important here.
On the other hand, the increased demand for autonomous vehicles could put more pressure on factory production, and make older cars obsolete. In that case, the gas mileage savings could be counteracted by the increased environmental impact of factory production.
The Bottom Line
Right now, there are too many unanswered questions to make a confident determination whether self-driving vehicles will help or harm the environment. Will we start driving more, or less? How will they handle dead time? What kind of models are going to be on the road?
Engineers and the general public are in complete control of how this develops in the near future. Hopefully, we’ll be able to see all the safety benefits of having autonomous vehicles on the road, but without any of the extra environmental impact to deal with.
New Zealand to Switch to Fully Renewable Energy by 2035
New Zealand’s prime minister-elect Jacinda Ardern is already taking steps towards reducing the country’s carbon footprint. She signed a coalition deal with NZ First in October, aiming to generate 100% of the country’s energy from renewable sources by 2035.
New Zealand is already one of the greenest countries in the world, sourcing over 80% of its energy for its 4.7 million people from renewable resources like hydroelectric, geothermal and wind. The majority of its electricity comes from hydro-power, which generated 60% of the country’s energy in 2016. Last winter, renewable generation peaked at 93%.
Now, Ardern is taking on the challenge of eliminating New Zealand’s remaining use of fossil fuels. One of the biggest obstacles will be filling in the gap left by hydropower sources during dry conditions. When lake levels drop, the country relies on gas and coal to provide energy. Eliminating fossil fuels will require finding an alternative source to avoid spikes in energy costs during droughts.
Business NZ’s executive director John Carnegie told Bloomberg he believes Ardern needs to balance her goals with affordability, stating, “It’s completely appropriate to have a focus on reducing carbon emissions, but there needs to be an open and transparent public conversation about the policies and how they are delivered.”
The coalition deal outlined a few steps towards achieving this, including investing more in solar, which currently only provides 0.1% of the country’s energy. Ardern’s plans also include switching the electricity grid to renewable energy, investing more funds into rail transport, and switching all government vehicles to green fuel within a decade.
Zero net emissions by 2050
Beyond powering the country’s electricity grid with 100% green energy, Ardern also wants to reach zero net emissions by 2050. This ambitious goal is very much in line with her focus on climate change throughout the course of her campaign. Environmental issues were one of her top priorities from the start, which increased her appeal with young voters and helped her become one of the youngest world leaders at only 37.
Reaching zero net emissions would require overcoming challenging issues like eliminating fossil fuels in vehicles. Ardern hasn’t outlined a plan for reaching this goal, but has suggested creating an independent commission to aid in the transition to a lower carbon economy.
She also set a goal of doubling the number of trees the country plants per year to 100 million, a goal she says is “absolutely achievable” using land that is marginal for farming animals.
Greenpeace New Zealand climate and energy campaigner Amanda Larsson believes that phasing out fossil fuels should be a priority for the new prime minister. She says that in order to reach zero net emissions, Ardern “must prioritize closing down coal, putting a moratorium on new fossil fuel plants, building more wind infrastructure, and opening the playing field for household and community solar.”
A worldwide shift to renewable energy
Addressing climate change is becoming more of a priority around the world and many governments are assessing how they can reduce their reliance on fossil fuels and switch to environmentally-friendly energy sources. Sustainable energy is becoming an increasingly profitable industry, giving companies more of an incentive to invest.
Ardern isn’t alone in her climate concerns, as other prominent world leaders like Justin Trudeau and Emmanuel Macron have made renewable energy a focus of their campaigns. She isn’t the first to set ambitious goals, either. Sweden and Norway share New Zealand’s goal of net zero emissions by 2045 and 2030, respectively.
Scotland already sources more than half of its electricity from renewable sources and aims to fully transition by 2020, while France announced plans in September to stop fossil fuel production by 2040. This would make it the first country to do so, and the first to end the sale of gasoline and diesel vehicles.
Many parts of the world still rely heavily on coal, but if these countries are successful in phasing out fossil fuels and transitioning to renewable resources, it could serve as a turning point. As other world leaders see that switching to sustainable energy is possible – and profitable – it could be the start of a worldwide shift towards environmentally-friendly energy.