The Chancellor should focus the Autumn statement on rethinking taxation strategy, freezing cuts to corporation tax and increases to income tax thresholds.
Tax giveaways worth £32bn this year have prevented the government from meeting its fiscal targets, according to new analysis published today by the Resolution Foundation as it calls on the Chancellor to set out a new approach to tax in his Autumn Statement.
The Foundation says that expensive tax cuts implemented by the previous Chancellor – including the £17bn annual cost of raising the Personal Tax Allowance (PTA), £8bn of headline corporation tax cuts and £7bn in fuel duty freezes – more than match the current budget deficit of around £30bn that the new Chancellor Philip Hammond is projected to face in 2016-17 as he delivers his first fiscal statement.
With the cost of these tax cuts rising further over the course of this parliament – reaching £41bn by 2020-21 – it adds that their absence would have meant the Chancellor would also be on course to deliver an overall surplus in 2018-19. This is despite an expected significant deterioration in the public finances detailed in research from the Resolution Foundation last week, which showed that Philip Hammond is expected to abandon George Osborne’s target for eliminating the overall deficit in 2019-2020.
The think tank’s analysis shows that while overall taxes have risen in recent years, these cuts explain why tax has played a much smaller part than spending cuts in reducing borrowing since 2010.
Coupled with weaker than expected economic growth the cuts have contributed to a cumulative £170bn shortfall in tax receipts over the last parliament relative to projections made by the Office for Budget Responsibility back in 2010. It’s likely that projections for this parliament will also be revised down at the Autumn Statement following disappointing tax receipts growth in the first six months of this year and amid economic uncertainty following the referendum result.
While raising the PTA will deliver a cash boost of up to £765 by the end of the parliament for people earning between £8,100 and £110,000, RF analysis has shown that 80 per cent of the gains from these income tax cuts go to higher income households.
The analysis also shows how the tax cuts, combined with rising income inequality in the 1980s and big income rises for the very richest during the 2000s, have led to a significant narrowing of the UK tax base, with implications for the predictability of income tax receipts.
The share of the UK population paying income tax has dropped from a high of 53 per cent in 2007 to around 46 per cent today, with this fall coming despite the fact that the share of people in work was 48 per cent in both years. The Foundation notes that sharp increases in self-employment and lower paid part time work explain some of the drop, but that it is also the product of government policy.
This narrowing of the tax base – coupled with a significant concentration of incomes over recent decades – means that the UK’s top earners now account for a greater share of the tax take. The richest 10 per cent of households account for roughly 40p of every £1 of income tax raised, up from 25p in 1977.
The Foundation adds that while top earners should pay more in a progressive tax system, an over-reliance on such revenues can leave the economy more exposed to economic shocks that disproportionately affect a small part of the population. It notes for example that pre-tax household incomes among the richest 1 per cent of taxpayers increased by an average of £150,000 in the decade running up to the financial crisis, but then fell by £50,000 in the five years after that.
Significant cuts to corporation tax have also transformed the nature of business taxation in recent years, with the headline rate falling from 28 per cent in 2010 to 20 per cent today and set to reach 17 per cent in 2020-21. This has reduced the proportion of tax receipts coming from corporation tax – and means Britain is on course to have by far the lowest corporation tax of any advanced country in the G20 at a time when the deficit remains significant.
The Foundation says that the ‘fiscal reset’ in the Chancellor’s upcoming Autumn Statement offers an opportunity to rethink the government’s approach to tax. In particular it warns that plans to narrow the tax base even further by raising the PTA to £12,500 and the Higher Rate Threshold to £50,000 by the end of the parliament, at a cost of £2bn, should not go ahead.
The Foundation says that there are far more targeted and cost-effective ways to support ‘just managing families’, for example by increasing the generosity of work allowances in Universal Credit. Such a move would raise incomes and boost work incentives, particularly for single parents and second earners in families.
Matt Whittaker, Chief Economist at the Resolution Foundation, said:
“The £32bn worth of tax cuts announced since 2010 has been the difference between the government hitting and missing its deficit reduction targets in the last Parliament, or indeed in this one.
“Tax cuts on this scale have clearly played a role in supporting household incomes, though around four-fifths of the £21bn due to be spent on raising the personal tax allowance by 2020 will have actually gone to the richest half of households.
“With the Chancellor indicating that he will press the ‘fiscal reset’ button in his Autumn Statement, now is the time to rethink the government’s tax policy. By abandoning the previous Chancellor’s pursuit of narrowing the tax base, he can ensure the government’s coffers are more resilient to future economic shocks.
“And if he wants to use any fiscal leeway to support the incomes of just managing families, increasing work allowances in Universal Credit offer a far more targeted boost to living standards than costly further increases in the personal tax allowance.”
A Good Look At How Homes Will Become More Energy Efficient Soon
Everyone always talks about ways they can save energy at home, but the tactics are old school. They’re only tweaking the way they do things at the moment. Sealing holes in your home isn’t exactly the next scientific breakthrough we’ve been waiting for.
There is some good news because technology is progressing quickly. Some tactics might not be brand new, but they’re becoming more popular. Here are a few things you should expect to see in homes all around the country within a few years.
1. The Rise Of Smart Windows
When you look at a window right now it’s just a pane of glass. In the future they’ll be controlled by microprocessors and sensors. They’ll change depending on the specific weather conditions directly outside.
If the sun disappears the shade will automatically adjust to let in more light. The exact opposite will happen when it’s sunny. These energy efficient windows will save everyone a huge amount of money.
2. A Better Way To Cool Roofs
If you wanted to cool a roof down today you would coat it with a material full of specialized pigments. This would allow roofs to deflect the sun and they’d absorb less heat in the process too.
Soon we’ll see the same thing being done, but it will be four times more effective. Roofs will never get too hot again. Anyone with a large roof is going to see a sharp decrease in their energy bills.
3. Low-E Windows Taking Over
It’s a mystery why these aren’t already extremely popular, but things are starting to change. Read low-E window replacement reviews and you’ll see everyone loves them because they’re extremely effective.
They’ll keep heat outside in summer or inside in winter. People don’t even have to buy new windows to enjoy the technology. All they’ll need is a low-E film to place over their current ones.
4. Magnets Will Cool Fridges
Refrigerators haven’t changed much in a very long time. They’re still using a vapor compression process that wastes energy while harming the environment. It won’t be long until they’ll be cooled using magnets instead.
The magnetocaloric effect is going to revolutionize cold food storage. The fluid these fridges are going to use will be water-based, which means the environment can rest easy and energy bills will drop.
5. Improving Our Current LEDs
Everyone who spent a lot of money on energy must have been very happy when LEDs became mainstream. Incandescent light bulbs belong in museums today because the new tech cut costs by up to 85 percent.
That doesn’t mean someone isn’t always trying to improve on an already great invention. The amount of lumens LEDs produce per watt isn’t great, but we’ve already found a way to increase it by 25 percent.
Maybe Homes Will Look Different Too
Do you think we’ll come up with new styles of homes that will take off? Surely it’s not out of the question. Everything inside homes seems to be changing for the better with each passing year. It’s going to continue doing so thanks to amazing inventors.
ShutterStock – Stock photo ID: 613912244
IEMA Urge Government’s Industrial Strategy Skills Overhaul To Adopt A “Long View Approach”
IEMA, in response to the launch of the Government’s Industrial Strategy Green Paper, have welcomed the focus on technical skills and education to boost “competence and capability” of tomorrow’s workforce.
Policy experts at the world’s leading professional association of Environment and Sustainability professionals has today welcomed Prime Minister Teresa May’s confirmation that an overhaul of technical education and skills will form a central part of the Plan for Britain – but warns the strategy must be one for the long term.
Martin Baxter, Chief Policy Advisor at IEMA said this morning that the approach and predicted investment in building a stronger technical skills portfolio to boost the UK’s productivity and economic resilience is positive, and presents an opportunity to drive the UK’s skills profile and commitment to sustainability outside of the EU.
Commenting on the launch of the Government’s Industrial Strategy Green Paper, Baxter said today:
“Government must use the Industrial Strategy as an opportunity to accelerate the UK’s transition to a low-carbon, resource efficient economy – one that is flexible and agile and which gives a progressive outlook for the UK’s future outside the EU.
We welcome the focus on skills and education, as it is vital that tomorrow’s workforce has the competence and capability to innovate and compete globally in high-value manufacturing and leading technology.
There is a real opportunity with the Industrial Strategy, and forthcoming 25 year Environment Plan and Carbon Emissions Reduction Plan, to set long-term economic and environmental outcomes which set the conditions to unlock investment, enhance natural capital and provide employment and export opportunities for UK business.
We will ensure that the Environment and Sustainability profession makes a positive contribution in responding to the Green Paper.”