Significant reform to close America’s 11 million jobs-gap with UK would boost incomes and reduce inequality
President Trump can learn from Britain’s strong employment record as he looks to make good on his promise to be “the greatest jobs producer that God ever created”, according to a new Resolution Foundation report published today (Monday) as the new President starts his first day on the job.
With the US and UK seemingly moving in step politically by rejecting the “establishment” and voting for significant change in elections last year, You’re hired! looks at the labour market performances of the two countries to see whether they share a similar economic story too.
The report finds that economic performance has been very different on the two sides of the Atlantic, both in the recent past and over the last few decades. While the US has outperformed the UK since the crisis on GDP growth and productivity, its record on converting that into rising living standards is much more mixed compared to the UK, despite neither having a strong recent record on incomes.
The reports finds that since 2008 US income growth has been primarily driven by pay. In contrast, the stronger and more equally shared income growth in the UK has been underpinned by rising employment, which is now at a record high of 74.5 per cent. Despite 75 months of continuous jobs growth under President Obama, employment remains 3 percentage points below pre-crisis levels.
The report finds that the poor employment performance in the US reflects a concerning long term trend of falling participation in the labour market among prime age (25-54) workers. Previous analysis by the Resolution Foundation found this played a role in last November’s election result.
The growing gap in employment performance between the countries now means that if the US had the same employment rate as the UK, 11 million more Americans would be in work.
The labour market participation rate (measuring those either in or looking for work) has been falling among men in the US for 60 years now and is an issue which President Trump correctly identified during his campaign. Even more surprising however, and less regularly focused on by the candidate Trump, has been the drop in participation among women since 2000. Over the same period, prime age female participation in the UK has risen by 4 percentage points, even during the downturn.
The Foundation says that President Trump’s focus on getting jobs back in traditionally male sectors such as manufacturing and mining risks missing a trick as there are even bigger job gains to be made by helping more women into work. And while the UK has long looked to the US for lessons on how to boost productivity, for example by trying to replicate its success in the digital economy, the US should be doing more to learn from the UK’s strong record on employment, and on increasing female participation in particular.
The Foundation points to three key mutually reinforcing UK policy successes over the last 20 years that the US should look to emulate (and that UK policy makers should not forget). These are:
• Raising the expectation of work: Tying unemployment benefits to actions such as job searching, combined with training and support to improve employment prospects, has encouraged more people to find work.
• Making work pay: More generous tax credits and a much higher minimum wage than in the US have boosted incentives to work in low and middle income households and helped drive worklessness down to a record low of 14.9 per cent.
• Boosting the support for work: Increases in maternity leave and support with childcare costs have enabled more women to return to work after having children. Recent research has found that the lack of US policy action on this accounts for a third of the divergence in female participation between the US and other advanced economies.
You’re Hired! shows that the countries’ contrasting labour market performances have also driven a big divergence on inequality, which has been broadly flat in the UK since the late 80s while continuing to rise in the US.
Torsten Bell, Director of the Resolution Foundation, said:
“President Trump wants to make America great again. Doing that requires one thing above all else – jobs. A country once envied around the globe for its employment performance now simply has too many people left out of the world of work, hitting incomes and driving up inequality.
“Despite far too widespread fatalism, there is nothing inevitable about these trends. The UK has plenty of its own living standards challenges but it has seen employment increase to record highs –and it is policy action that has made that happen. If Donald Trump wants to deliver on his promise to be ‘the greatest jobs producer that God ever created’, learning some of the lessons of the UK’s experience would pay more dividends than building walls or reducing trade.”
Daniel Tomlinson, Researcher at the Resolution Foundation, said:
“The anti-establishment votes for Brexit and Trump last year suggest that the US and UK are to some extent moving in step politically, as we have done for much of our post-war history. But there are striking differences between the UK and US economies, especially when it comes to getting people into work. Had the US matched our recent employment performance, 11 million more Americans would be in work. Similarly, had we experienced US-style pay growth we’d be £30 a week richer today.
“As President Trump starts his plan to Make American Great Again there are important lessons he can draw upon from the jobs success of Britain. These range from higher minimum wages and tax credits to make work pay, tochildcare support to boost female employment.
“These pro-employment policies have the added benefit of helping to tackle inequality – another pressing issue that the new President faces.”
New Zealand to Switch to Fully Renewable Energy by 2035
New Zealand’s prime minister-elect Jacinda Ardern is already taking steps towards reducing the country’s carbon footprint. She signed a coalition deal with NZ First in October, aiming to generate 100% of the country’s energy from renewable sources by 2035.
New Zealand is already one of the greenest countries in the world, sourcing over 80% of its energy for its 4.7 million people from renewable resources like hydroelectric, geothermal and wind. The majority of its electricity comes from hydro-power, which generated 60% of the country’s energy in 2016. Last winter, renewable generation peaked at 93%.
Now, Ardern is taking on the challenge of eliminating New Zealand’s remaining use of fossil fuels. One of the biggest obstacles will be filling in the gap left by hydropower sources during dry conditions. When lake levels drop, the country relies on gas and coal to provide energy. Eliminating fossil fuels will require finding an alternative source to avoid spikes in energy costs during droughts.
Business NZ’s executive director John Carnegie told Bloomberg he believes Ardern needs to balance her goals with affordability, stating, “It’s completely appropriate to have a focus on reducing carbon emissions, but there needs to be an open and transparent public conversation about the policies and how they are delivered.”
The coalition deal outlined a few steps towards achieving this, including investing more in solar, which currently only provides 0.1% of the country’s energy. Ardern’s plans also include switching the electricity grid to renewable energy, investing more funds into rail transport, and switching all government vehicles to green fuel within a decade.
Zero net emissions by 2050
Beyond powering the country’s electricity grid with 100% green energy, Ardern also wants to reach zero net emissions by 2050. This ambitious goal is very much in line with her focus on climate change throughout the course of her campaign. Environmental issues were one of her top priorities from the start, which increased her appeal with young voters and helped her become one of the youngest world leaders at only 37.
Reaching zero net emissions would require overcoming challenging issues like eliminating fossil fuels in vehicles. Ardern hasn’t outlined a plan for reaching this goal, but has suggested creating an independent commission to aid in the transition to a lower carbon economy.
She also set a goal of doubling the number of trees the country plants per year to 100 million, a goal she says is “absolutely achievable” using land that is marginal for farming animals.
Greenpeace New Zealand climate and energy campaigner Amanda Larsson believes that phasing out fossil fuels should be a priority for the new prime minister. She says that in order to reach zero net emissions, Ardern “must prioritize closing down coal, putting a moratorium on new fossil fuel plants, building more wind infrastructure, and opening the playing field for household and community solar.”
A worldwide shift to renewable energy
Addressing climate change is becoming more of a priority around the world and many governments are assessing how they can reduce their reliance on fossil fuels and switch to environmentally-friendly energy sources. Sustainable energy is becoming an increasingly profitable industry, giving companies more of an incentive to invest.
Ardern isn’t alone in her climate concerns, as other prominent world leaders like Justin Trudeau and Emmanuel Macron have made renewable energy a focus of their campaigns. She isn’t the first to set ambitious goals, either. Sweden and Norway share New Zealand’s goal of net zero emissions by 2045 and 2030, respectively.
Scotland already sources more than half of its electricity from renewable sources and aims to fully transition by 2020, while France announced plans in September to stop fossil fuel production by 2040. This would make it the first country to do so, and the first to end the sale of gasoline and diesel vehicles.
Many parts of the world still rely heavily on coal, but if these countries are successful in phasing out fossil fuels and transitioning to renewable resources, it could serve as a turning point. As other world leaders see that switching to sustainable energy is possible – and profitable – it could be the start of a worldwide shift towards environmentally-friendly energy.
How Going Green Can Save A Company Money
What is going green?
Going green means to live life in a way that is environmentally friendly for an entire population. It is the conservation of energy, water, and air. Going green means using products and resources that will not contaminate or pollute the air. It means being educated and well informed about the surroundings, and how to best protect them. It means recycling products that may not be biodegradable. Companies, as well as people, that adhere to going green can help to ensure a safer life for humanity.
The first step in going green
There are actually no step by step instructions for going green. The only requirement needed is making the decision to become environmentally conscious. It takes a caring attitude, and a willingness to make the change. It has been found that companies have improved their profit margins by going green. They have saved money on many of the frivolous things they they thought were a necessity. Besides saving money, companies are operating more efficiently than before going green. Companies have become aware of their ecological responsibility by pursuing the knowledge needed to make decisions that would change lifestyles and help sustain the earth’s natural resources for present and future generations.
Making needed changes within the company
After making the decision to go green, there are several things that can be changed in the workplace. A good place to start would be conserving energy used by electrical appliances. First, turning off the computer will save over the long run. Just letting it sleep still uses energy overnight. Turn off all other appliances like coffee maker, or anything that plugs in. Pull the socket from the outlet to stop unnecessary energy loss. Appliances continue to use electricity although they are switched off, and not unplugged. Get in the habit of turning off the lights whenever you leave a room. Change to fluorescent light bulbs, and lighting throughout the building. Have any leaks sealed on the premises to avoid the escape of heat or air.
Reducing the common paper waste
Modern technologies and state of the art equipment, and tools have almost eliminated the use of paper in the office. Instead of sending out newsletters, brochures, written memos and reminders, you can now do all of these and more by technology while saving on the use of paper. Send out digital documents and emails to communicate with staff and other employees. By using this virtual bookkeeping technique, you will save a bundle on paper. When it is necessary to use paper for printing purposes or other services, choose the already recycled paper. It is smartly labeled and easy to find in any office supply store. It is called the Post Consumer Waste paper, or PCW paper. This will show that your company is dedicated to the preservation of natural resources. By using PCW paper, everyone helps to save the trees which provides and emits many important nutrients into the atmosphere.
Make money by spreading the word
Companies realize that consumers like to buy, or invest in whatever the latest trend may be. They also cater to companies that are doing great things for the quality of life of all people. People want to know that the companies that they cater to are doing their part for the environment and ecology. By going green, you can tell consumers of your experiences with helping them and communities be eco-friendly. This is a sound public relations technique to bring revenue to your brand. Boost the impact that your company makes on the environment. Go green, save and make money while essentially preserving what is normally taken for granted. The benefits of having a green company are enormous for consumers as well as the companies that engage in the process.