A new report published today (Tuesday) by the independent think-tank the Resolution Foundation states that Greater Manchester’s impressive leadership on the national devolution agenda should now be used to tackle the stark living standards inequalities between local areas across the city region.
The Foundation’s report looks at the city region’s successes and failures in boosting living standards over the last two decades, and sets out three key challenges that the new Metro Mayor will need to address when they are elected next May.
It notes with average household incomes in Greater Manchester almost £80 a week lower than the rest of the country outside the major cities (at £484) there is plenty of work to do to boost living standards.
The report details the strong performance that saw Greater Manchester outperform most other city regions in the decade running up to the financial crisis, in part thanks to the regeneration of the City centre. However, recent struggles mean it has lost the advantage it built up, while places like Rochdale and Oldham are falling further behind both newly successful areas like Manchester City centre and established living standards leaders like Trafford.
Between 1997 and 2007, Greater Manchester enjoyed strong economic growth and a buoyant labour market. Typical pay across the area rose by 15 per cent – and by 21 per cent for the lowest earners. The employment rate rose by 4 percentage points, while employment for single parents, BAME and disabled people rose by 10 percentage points.
However, even during this period of shared economic success, new geographic inequalities emerged. While the impressive growth of some traditionally poor areas – particularly those in and around the regional centre – reduced geographic inequality, the lacklustre performance of places like Oldham, Rochdale and Bolton created new divisions between the centre and northern outskirts of Greater Manchester.
Manchester’s performance in the years since the start of the crisis has been far less impressive. The strength of the economy (GVA per head) is still 3.5 percentage points below its pre-crisis peak – a gap the UK as a whole closed last year.
Its labour market has also disappointed. Workers in Greater Manchester experienced a deep pay squeeze, with typical earnings still no higher than they were in 2002 despite the recent recovery.
The region’s mixed record on employment has contributed to a further widening of already stark geographic inequalities. While Manchester and Salford have experienced impressive employment growth of around six percentage points over the last five years, employment has grown by just one percentage point in Bury, and has actually fallen in Rochdale during this time.
Greater Manchester’s jobs divide is felt most keenly by disadvantaged groups – a BAME person is 50 per cent more likely to be in work if they live in Trafford, compared to Manchester – highlighting that serious living standards challenges remain even in the City centre.
Looking at the current living standards picture across Greater Manchester, the report identifies three key challenges that the new Metro Mayor should prioritise. They are:
- Tackle the stark employment divide. The Mayor should target closing the huge 20 percentage point ‘jobs gap’ between the highest and lowest employment levels – the biggest gap of any city in Britain – for disadvantaged groups in different parts of the same city region.
- Boost productivity. Greater Manchester must turn its post-crisis productivity slump around. It should use its high graduate retention rate to boost the number of professional and managerial jobs, showing the continued importance of developing the City centre as a magnet for such jobs.
- Address housing affordability concerns. Boost house building to address the dramatic drop in home ownership, which has fallen even faster than London since the early 2000s.
The regeneration of central Manchester from the 1990s onwards has helped the wider economy to thrive in the years running up to the financial crisis
Stephen Clarke, Research Analyst at the Resolution Foundation, said:
“The regeneration of central Manchester from the 1990s onwards has helped the wider economy to thrive in the years running up to the financial crisis. These gains fed through into people’s pay packets and were shared fairly too, with the lowest earners witnessing the fastest pay growth. They also saw Greater Manchester establish itself at the forefront of a much needed devolution agenda, driving changes far beyond the city itself.
“But a tough recession and sluggish recent recovery means that the new Metro Mayor will face a city region at a crossroads. There is plenty of scope for Manchester to thrive again, but also a risk that it could fall behind other major cities, as it has been doing recently.
“Central to getting Greater Manchester back on track is tackling the stark geographical disparities across the region. This should include targeting the region’s 20 per cent jobs gap for disadvantaged groups. Because while the regional centre and Trafford have enjoyed impressive growth in recent decades, areas like Oldham and Rochdale have been left behind.
“The good news is that as a result of impressive leadership on devolution, the new Metro Mayor will have more tools than any other Mayor in Britain – from employment and skills, to transport and housing – to take on Greater Manchester’s living standards challenge.
“But the pressure is on whoever wins in May. Greater Manchester is the poster boy for an exciting new era of devolution. The success or otherwise of its first Metro Mayor could therefore determine the future of devolution across Britain.”
7 New Technologies That Could Radically Change Our Energy Consumption
Most of our focus on technological development to lessen our environmental impact has been focused on cleaner, more efficient methods of generating electricity. The cost of solar energy production, for example, is slated to fall more than 75 percent between 2010 and 2020.
This is a massive step forward, and it’s good that engineers and researchers are working for even more advancements in this area. But what about technologies that reduce the amount of energy we demand in the first place?
Though it doesn’t get as much attention in the press, we’re making tremendous progress in this area, too.
New Technologies to Watch
These are some of the top emerging technologies that have the power to reduce our energy demands:
- Self-driving cars. Self-driving cars are still in development, but they’re already being hailed as potential ways to eliminate a number of problems on the road, including the epidemic of distracted driving ironically driven by other new technologies. However, even autonomous vehicle proponents often miss the tremendous energy savings that self-driving cars could have on the world. With a fleet of autonomous vehicles at our beck and call, consumers will spend less time driving themselves and more time carpooling, dramatically reducing overall fuel consumption once it’s fully adopted.
- Magnetocaloric tech. The magnetocaloric effect isn’t exactly new—it was actually discovered in 1881—but it’s only recently being studied and applied to commercial appliances. Essentially, this technology relies on changing magnetic fields to produce a cooling effect, which could be used in refrigerators and air conditioners to significantly reduce the amount of electricity required.
- New types of insulation. Insulation is the best asset we have to keep our homes thermoregulated; they keep cold or warm air in (depending on the season) and keep warm or cold air out (again, depending on the season). New insulation technology has the power to improve this efficiency many times over, decreasing our need for heating and cooling entirely. For example, some new automated sealing technologies can seal gaps between 0.5 inches wide and the width of a human hair.
- Better lights. Fluorescent bulbs were a dramatic improvement over incandescent bulbs, and LEDs were a dramatic improvement over fluorescent bulbs—but the improvements may not end there. Scientists are currently researching even better types of light bulbs, and more efficient applications of LEDs while they’re at it.
- Better heat pumps. Heat pumps are built to transfer heat from one location to another, and can be used to efficiently manage temperatures—keeping homes warm while requiring less energy expenditure. For example, some heat pumps are built for residential heating and cooling, while others are being used to make more efficient appliances, like dryers.
- The internet of things. The internet of things and “smart” devices is another development that can significantly reduce our energy demands. For example, “smart” windows may be able to respond dynamically to changing light conditions to heat or cool the house more efficiently, and “smart” refrigerators may be able to respond dynamically to new conditions. There are several reasons for this improvement. First, smart devices automate things, so it’s easier to control your energy consumption. Second, they track your consumption patterns, so it’s easier to conceptualize your impact. Third, they’re often designed with efficiency in mind from the beginning, reducing energy demands, even without the high-tech interfaces.
- Machine learning. Machine learning and artificial intelligence (AI) technologies have the power to improve almost every other item on this list. By studying consumer patterns and recommending new strategies, or automatically controlling certain features, machine learning algorithms have the power to fundamentally change how we use energy in our homes and businesses.
Making the Investment
All technologies need time, money, and consumer acceptance to be developed. Fortunately, a growing number of consumers are becoming enthusiastic about finding new ways to reduce their energy consumption and overall environmental impact. As long as we keep making the investment, our tools to create cleaner energy and demand less energy in the first place should have a massive positive effect on our environment—and even our daily lives.
Two Ancient Japanese Philosophies Are the Future of Eco-Living
Our obsession with all things new has blighted the planet. We have a waste crisis, particularly when it comes to plastic. US scientists have calculated the total amount of plastic ever made – 8.3 billion tons! Unfortunately, only 9% of this is estimated to have been recycled. And current global trends point to there being 12 billion tons of plastic waste by 2050.
However, two ancient Japanese philosophies are providing an antidote to the excesses of modern life. By emphasizing the elimination of waste and the acceptance of the old and imperfect, the concepts of Mottainai and Wabi-Sabi have positively influenced Japanese life for centuries.
They are now making their way into the consciousness of the Western mainstream, with an increasing influence in the UK and US. By encouraging us to be frugal with our possessions, (i.e. using natural materials for interior design) these concepts can be the future of eco-living.
What is Wabi-Sabi and Mottainai??
Wabi-Sabi emphasizes an acceptance of transience and imperfection. Although Wabi had the original meaning of sad and lonely, it has come to describe those that are simple, unmaterialistic and at one with nature. The term Sabi is defined as the “the bloom of time”, and has evolved into a new meaning: taking pleasure and seeing beauty in things that are old and faded.
Any flaws in objects, like cracks or marks, are cherished because they illustrate the passage of time. Wear and tear is seen as a representation of their loving use. This makes it intrinsically linked to Wabi, due to its emphasis on simplicity and rejection of materialism.
In the West, Wabi-Sabi has infiltrated many elements of daily life, from cuisine to interior design. Specialist Japanese homeware companies, like Sansho, source handmade products that embody the Wabi-Sabi philosophy. Their products, largely made from natural materials, are handcrafted by traditional Japanese artisans – meaning no two pieces are the same and no two pieces are “perfect” in size or shape.
Mottainai is a term expressing a feeling of regret concerning waste, translating roughly in English to either “what a waste!” or “Don’t waste!”. The philosophy emphasizes the intrinsic value of a resource or object, and is linked to hinto animism, the notion that all objects have a spirit, or ‘kami’. The idea that we are part of nature is a key part of Japanese psychology.
Mottainai also has origins in Buddhist philosophy. The Buddhist monastic tradition emphasizes a life of frugality, to allow us to concentrate on attaining enlightenment. It is from this move towards frugality that a link to Mottainai as a concept of waste can be made.
How have Wabi-Sabi and Mottainai promoted eco living?
Wabi-Sabi is still a prominent feature of Japanese life today, and has remained instrumental in the way people design their homes. The ideas of imperfection and frugality are hugely influential.
For example, instead of buying a brand-new kitchen table, many Japanese people instead retain a table that has been passed through the generations. Although its long use can be seen by various marks and scratches, Wabi-Sabi has taught people that they should value it because of its imperfect nature. Those scratches and marks are a story and signify the passage of time. This is a far cry from what we typically associate with the Western World.
Like Wabi Sabi, Mottainai is manifested throughout Japanese life, creating a great respect for Japanese resources. This has had a major impact on home design. For example, the Japanese prefer natural materials in their homes, such as using soil and dried grass as thermal insulation.
Their influence in the UK
The UK appears to be increasingly influenced by thes two concepts. Some new reports indicate that Wabi Sabi has been labelled as ‘the trend of 2018’. For example, Japanese ofuro baths inspired the project that won the New London Architecture’s 2017 Don’t Move, Improve award. Ofuro baths are smaller than typical baths, use less water, and are usually made out of natural materials, like hinoki wood.
Many other UK properties have also been influenced by these philosophies, such as natural Kebony wood being applied to the external cladding of a Victorian property in Hampstead; or a house in Lancaster Gate using rice paper partitions as sub-dividers. These examples embody the spirit of both philosophies. They are representative of Mottainai because of their use of natural resources to discourage waste. And they’re reflective of Wabi-Sabi because they accept imperfect materials that have not been engineered or modified.
In a world that is plagued by mass over-consumption and an incessant need for novelty, the ancient concepts of Mottainai and Wabi-Sabi provide a blueprint for living a more sustainable life. They help us to reduce consumption and put less of a strain on the planet. This refreshing mindset can help us transform the way we go about our day to day lives.
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